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world, reggae, gospel, indie, spoken psalm, roots musique, Dub-step, drum & bass
Born under the silver moon at the horn of Africa (Kenya), Bob has always been involved in music, dance, theatre and poetry as a way of transmitting peace n love in these Armagedeon times. It is in this spirit that Jah gave I the mission to spread the word since my childhood, first with a loving mom who sang gracious African lullabies that have often influenced my music.
In high school I frequented a catholic school. My mum lives n dad passed away some tears back.... Also learnt a lot of traditional jigs with the late, a man who inspired me by his devotion to success and faith to the Almighty.
More About Salvation Army of Jah
high school I frequented a catholic school and was baptised Robert in 1992, my mom n dad’s dream. My mum lives n dad passed away 10 yrs ago. Also learnt a lot of traditional jigs with the late, a man who inspired me by his devotion to success and faith to the Almighty. On Sundays we often sang in unison to glorify Jahovah. Started learning to play instruments at a catholique church in Kenya with British missionaries in the late nineties and has never left since.Bass guitar, aqoustique, electric, percussions, keyboard, and flutes/bamboo.After a stint in tourism n social work Bob migrated to the west and lives in France where he does social work with the French Red –Cross. I work particularly with isolated minors from all over the world. A population that inspire me as well as I do, Together we sing and share the love we desire today because music is the language fi the children of the world. S.A.J music is inspired by all that is Ital, Reggae, blues, gospel, indies, pop, world etc, hope you have a splendid passage on my page. Blessed love and Itality.
Négus the Shiloh – H.I.M Haillé Selassie I
“The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until Shiloh come: And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be. Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; he has washed his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes: his eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk” (Genesis 49:10-15)
When Jacob, grandson of Abraham, was old and near death (he died at 147 years of age), he called together his sons and prophesied various details as to the fortunes and fates of the descendants of these men. Particularly significant is the oracle regarding the fate of his fourth son, Judah, as reflected in the citation above.
For many centuries it has been the conviction of both Jews and Christians that the prophetic utterance was focused upon the Hebrew Messiah. Orthodox Jews believe this Messiah has not yet arrived, but is yet in the future. Liberal Hebrews emasculate the text of any real person, viewing the “Messiah” as a mere metaphor for a time of peace destined to arrive eventually. Genuine Christians contend that the declaration is fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth who lived in Palestine twenty centuries ago, who was crucified as an alleged felon, but who rose from the dead and finally ascended back to God. H.I.M Haillé Selassie I ruler of Ethiopia, His holiness, Negus of Amhar & elect of God is the King of Kings and the conquering Lion of the tribe of Jude - the Shiloh Otieno Robert 26/08/09
Racial prejudice is an insidious moral and social disease affecting peoples and populations all over the world. It is diagnosed by the cataloguing of its various symptoms and manifestations which include fear, intolerance, separation, segregation, discrimination, and hatred. While all of these symptoms of racial prejudice may be manifest, the single underlying cause of racial prejudice is ignorance. Historically, a race of people is defined as a population with distinguishable biological features.
While all humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, races are distinguished from one another by such characteristics as hair colour and texture, skin colour, eye colour and shape, size of limb and body parts, and facial organs. Though scientists have reached the conclusion that these differences amongst peoples are superficial and have further agreed that all members of the species Homo sapiens have more characteristics in common than different, mankind itself continues to view each other from the features that are outwardly perceived.
Indeed, humans are outwardly different in appearance; the problem arises when the symptoms of the disease become evident: intolerance, separation, and hatred. In a positive vein, one may embrace the differences of peoples across the face of the earth and marvel at the uniqueness of individuals who live on a different part of the globe or across the street. Racial prejudice perverts this uniqueness of the races and takes the view that these differences separate individuals further into groups, with one group being inferior to the other.
Racial prejudice affects everyone. Inasmuch as racial prejudice manifests itself in that people are “pre-judged” based on superficial characteristics, we must honestly conclude that all people “suffer” from this on various levels. When we don’t know an individual well, we consciously or unconsciously begin to characterize him or her based on what we see. Again, this is due to our ignorance of the person’s real character and personality. We will form opinions, often based along stereotypical lines: “all people of such and such race are. . .” We can fill in the blanks with such expectations that certain races are intellectually superior, others are full of avarice, another is more artistically or athletically inclined, still another has members who are apt to be dishonest, etc, etc. . These ideas have been formed from society, media, and our own upbringing.
Maybe these ideas have been taught directly or indirectly, acted out by one’s parents. Whatever the source, even the most enlightened member of a society will find that to some extent, he or she is judging another based on the superficial aspects of race.
Racial prejudice has shaped the form of our present day societies; indeed, prejudice has shaped societies since time began. As far back as the children of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob living in the land of Goshen, peoples have been subjugated due to their differences. Beyond all of the spiritual implications of the nation of Israel living in Egypt, it is evident that the Egyptians feared the Israelites. Wherever there are differences, there is fear, intolerance, and injustice.
From Hitler and the Nazis to the Southern American slave owners, prejudice of one race against another has resulted in atrocities. To counteract the disease of racial prejudice, modern-day societies have drafted and enacted legislation to ensure that people “treat” each other with respect and dignity allowing one another their inalienable right to their pursuit of life and liberty. While man’s actions can be legislated, their hearts and fears cannot. Thus, society continues to suffer from the disease. Forums, coalitions, and initiatives continue to be formed to foster unity, understanding, and tolerance.
The best answer may be found in the Bible: “Jesus replied: 'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with your entire mind.' This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: 'Love your neighbour as yourself.' All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments" (Matthew 22:37-40).Acts 17:26 , "He made every nation from one blood..."
Who I'd like to meet:
Marcus Garvey to Pope Pius XI - New York, 3 August 1924
Will your holiness please accept the greetings and the best wishes of the Negro peoples of the world as expressed through their delegates and representatives attending the 4th annual International Convention of race. Negro Peoples of the world
We pray that your vision of the future may be so clear so as to enable you to use your influence on a wounded world to treat decently and fairly, politically, socially, industrially and religiously the 400,000,000 members of our race scattered through out Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas.
Marcus Garvey, New York
Leonard P. Howell
Dread philosopher: Leonard P Howell
by LOUIS EA MOYSTON
IF one accepts the philosophical properties of Rastafari, then one must accept its philosopher and the origin of philosophy. There are many who speak of Rastafari and its philosophy without ever bothering to recognise the dread philosopher, Leonard P Howell. Many adherents to the Rastafari movement are so lost in the Bible that they are not aware of this philosopher and the origins of the philosophy. However, the Rastafari Centralisation Organisation and a few others have been, since lately, expressing new-found appreciation and honour to this great personality. I say great because Howell's contribution to Jamaica and world history is of no minor importance.
A few years ago, I was distributing fliers at a football match regarding an Emancipation Day celebrating the life and times of LP Howell. As I gave one youth, who claims Rastafari, he looked up and said, "A wha dis? Di man no have di fullness?" I patiently replied, "You are looking at the fullness." It seems to me that there is a problem in this country, across the board, in having Jamaicans celebrating Jamaica and things Jamaican. It appears that "the absentee" mentality has not left us even after Emancipation and Independence. I wonder, if Time magazine and the BBC did not accord Bob Marley with those accolades at the turn of this new era, I am not sure if those billboards and radio recognitions in this country would have been in place. It is full time we begin to learn more about ourselves and celebrate our history and culture.
Howell's moment of enlightenment came in the early 1930s. Evidence of this is present in the 1934 treatise he presented to the court in Morant Bay 1934. According to Howell, the emergence of the doctrine provides Rastafari with a basis to distinguish between falsehood and the truth. Recognising the wretchedness of the immediate history and the condition of the 1930s, he preached a doctrine that went beyond the quest for miraculous solution. In recognising this wretchedness of the ex-slaves' existence, he instructed that solution to the black man's problem has to come from the black man himself. It was on this basis that he extended his moment of enlightenment to others in his rural meeting in St Thomas, from east to west. The peasants, primarily, expressed the desire for this transformation. It was with this dread philosophy that Howell presented to them as an instrument to debrief the ex-slaves from their wretched existence. This "dreadful" freedom was embraced by Rastafarians to
confront his meaningless existence. The dread philosophy exposed the loss created by recent slave history and highlights the "nothingness" with regards to being a member of colonial Jamaica and the British Commonwealth.
By 1934 the "dread" thinking became a way of life, at least in St Thomas. It generated a mood to return to the past or to the source to redefine the present. The dread philosophy encouraged black man's awareness of self and his recognition of his authenticity as an equal participant in this global community. When the "dread" transformation of the peasants began to mushroom, Howell was arrested on a charge of sedition. He was tried and thrown into prison for doing the right thing.
While in prison the movement grew leaps and bounds. On his return, he led the establishment of the Ethiopian Salvation Society. The latter was the economic and benevolent framework within which the movement would develop programmes of self-reliance leading to self-responsibility. It was not about esteem and miracles; it was about consciousness of self and the operationalisation of this consciousness into productive endeavours.
SEDITION was a charge developed by white supremacy to protect its legitimacy. It was during my recent research and study of South Africa that I grasped the full power and meaning of this legal instrument. This law was often backed up by state terrorism in the real sense against Rastafarians. Yes, the evidence of state sponsored terrorism against Rastafari in this country is glaring.
It began in 1934, continued throughout the forties and came to a high point in 1954 with the raid that destroyed Pinnacle and during and after the Coral Gardens incident in the early 1960s. Some speak of the "Back-o-wall" experience and constant harassment of Rastas up to the 1970s when this approach receded. What emerged as a street movement in St Thomas in the early thirties has grown into a movement that is universal. Many in this country celebrate Rasta. Many locals and foreigners write about the subject and fail to recognise or fail to give proper recognition to this great contribution and significant person.
I find it puzzling that many Jamaicans, across the board, think it difficult to celebrate the idea of Jamaica and or things Jamaican. Take Emancipation Day, for example, many in the ex-slave society think it is not a worthy celebration. How do we celebrate Independence and other most important dates? Compare this with carnival that is not Jamaican, or even Kwanzaa and Black History Month. Examine the effort in preparation for carnival, the pre-shows, the media activities and the excessive passion displayed in the streets. Once those very same people complained about vulgarity and the dancehall. Now they are out in the street with much of what is downright nastiness. It is a celebration of the devil. I am not an insular person regarding other cultures, but I am a Jamaican before anything else. In the past many were satisfied to be second-class Americans while today we mimic African American, culture as if we are second-class black Americans. During what is called Black History Month it is ridiculous to watch the "conscious" ones don kente cloth or listen to them on the radio deep into African American heroes and history as if it belongs to us. It is so hard for us to be ourselves.
On June 16, we marked another anniversary of Howell's birth. On this occasion, tribute is paid to this son of Jamaica from Crooked River, Clarendon. He was arrested, abused, vilified and discarded but these obstacles did not stop the movement from its basic course. We have not begun to examine the relevance and power or worth of this idea, this movement and the man as they relate to the history of Jamaica and the world. There is the history of Ethiopia, and the myths and history surrounding the Bible and, yes, there is the history of Howell and Jamaica. They are most important pillars in understanding and developing an appreciation for Rastafari. There are so many prophets today, so many high priests and messengers all declaring power unto themselves as if they are the centre of this idea and movement. It would be unfortunate for some whites to give recognition to this man we followed with his pictures on the billboards and salutations over the radio. Now more than ever, we should be thinking and celebrating things Jamaican.
On Saturday, June 16, some members of the Rastafarian community, led by Jah Lion from St Catherine, celebrated Howell's anniversary at Pinnacle, Sligoville. When I stood on Pinnacle, I understood why Howell went there. Indeed, the "the bird that flies highest sees the farthest".
[Winston Rodney] Chanteur de reggae jamaïcain, 1969 : né en 1948 à Saint Ann’s Bay, Jamaïque.
Émule de Bob Marley, Burning Spear est doté d’une voix incomparable, incantatoire et suppliante, qui confère une dimension très particulière à ses chansons. Il est considéré par beaucoup comme l’homme qui a repris le flambeau rastafari après la disparition de Marley.
Burning Spear, la « Lance enflammée », est un surnom belliqueux emprunté au premier président kenyan Jomo Kenyatta (qui a été d’abord le chef des Mau-Mau, la fraction armée de la tribu Kikuyu qui avait ravi le pouvoir à la minorité blanche en semant la terreur dans les années 50 et 60 au Kenya). Le « Spear » a été élevé, comme le grand leader noir Marcus Garvey, dans la petite ville de Saint Ann, sur la côte nord jamaïcaine. Bob Marley, originaire de la même région, l’a encouragé à rendre visite au producteur Clement « Coxsone » Dodd chez Studio One en 1969. Lors de sa rituelle audition dominicale, ce dernier a d’abord retenu l’excellent « Door Peeper », un sombre morceau qui semble remonter du fond des âges, un des tout premiers manifestes rastas à voir le jour. Spear a enregistré d’autres 45 tours pour Dodd pendant cinq ans. Ils sont pour la plupart réunis sur deux albums, Studio One Presents Burning Spear et Rocking Time, restés d’indispensables classiques comme beaucoup des premières réalisations d’artistes découverts par Dodd. Déçu par sa rémunération, et malgré des merveilles d’une grande pureté comme « Rocking Time » ou « Ethiopians Live It Out », Spear accepte l’offre de Jack Ruby qui réalise en 1975 l’album Marcus Garvey, instantanément et unanimement considéré depuis comme son chef-d’oeuvre. Les disques lsland à Londres ont aussitôt signé avec Burning Spear et distribué ce disque incontournable, remixant et accélérant au passage certains titres, au grand dam des critiques (le son d’origine est toujours disponible sur vinyle en import jamaïcain). Le remixage instrumental dub effectué en Jamaïque, Garvey’s Ghost (1976), est lui aussi indispensable ; c’est sans doute le disque idéal pour découvrir le dub (il est aujourd’hui couplé à l’album Marcus Garvey en CD).
Dès lors, les 45 tours de Burning Spear sortent sous la propre marque de leur auteur, Spear, et sont publiés en album par Island hors de la Jamaïque. Suivent Man In The Hills, réalisé par Jack Ruby, puis Dry & Heavy (1977) qui reprend plusieurs des succès du Spear chez Studio One (il l’arrange, le réalise et le produit lui-même). Peu après, sur les traces de Bob Marley un concert a lieu au théâtre Rainbow de Londres. Il est accompagné par un jeune groupe anglais, Aswad, et la section de cuivres de Bobby Ellis. Un disque en public, Burning Spear Live, est enregistré. Spear a ensuite quitté Island et coréalisé en 1978 avec Karl Pitterson un autre chef-d’oeuvre, Marcus Children, son meilleur disque depuis Marcus Garvey. Celui-ci est également réalisé avec Aswad, et sort en Europe sous le nom de Social Living (Blood & Fire-Night & Day). Puis Hail H.I.M. (EMI), enregistré au studio Tuff Gong de Marley (avec son bassiste Family Man), est une autre perle de cet âge d’or. Ces deux excellents disques existent remixés en versions dub sous le nom de Living Dub Volumes 1 & 2. Burning Spear organise alors ses affaires en sociétés autonomes nécessaires à son existence.
A ce stade de sa carrière, malgré des difficultés financières, il est déjà au sommet de la liste des artistes de reggae à renommée internationale. La disparition de Marley en 1981 laisse une place vacante ; le Spear n’a pas l’ambition de la combler, mais sa voix, ses concerts incessants et une discographie solide l’ont imposé comme le leader international du reggae rasta traditionnel au moment où le son jamaïcain bascule dans le tout-numérique des styles dance-hall. Malgré la qualité constante de ses concerts, on ressent un imperceptible déclin; un manque de renouvellement artistique dans le son de ses disques autoproduits, qui pourtant restent toujours bons. La magie des années 70 a disparu, mais ses disques se vendent. Il signe avec la marque américaine Heartbeat (Média 7). Après Farover (1982), c’est Fittest Of The Fittest (1983), et le réussi Resistance (cité pour une récompense Grammy en 1984). Il signe avec la marque anglaise Greensleeves pour People Of The World (1986), Mistress Music (1988) et le double Live In Paris : Zénith ‘88. En 1990, il retourne chez les disques Island (Déclic en France) pour Mek We Dweet, puis Jah Kingdom (1992), Live 1993, le bon The World Should Know (1993) et Rasta Business (1995), qui se vend particulièrement bien. En 1996 paraissent Living Dub Vol. 3 et la double compilation Chant Down Babylon : une anthologie des deux périodes Island qui sort en même temps qu’un Best Of Burning Spear qui, lui, réunit d’autres titres des années 80 et 90 sortis chez Déclic. Après deux grandes tournées aux Etats-Unis (1995-1996) est publié Appointment With His Majesty (Burning Music-Jahmin’-Média 7, 1997), un autre très bon disque. Burning Spear a été cité six fois pour le titre Grammy de l’album de reggae de l’année au cours de sa carrière. La constance inaltérable et mystique avec laquelle il chante des thèmes du rastafari l’a peu à peu élevé au rang des plus grands noms du reggae traditionnel.
Le groupe Culture, connu au départ sous le nom de The African Disciples, se forme en 1976 autour du trio vocal Joseph Hill le leader, lusiano kafovalu, Albert 'Ralph' Walker et Kenneth Dayes (De son vrai nom Roy 'Kenneth' Paley) assurant les backing. Joseph Hill est le seul qui a une réelle expérience du studio, ayant enregistré comme percussionniste du groupe Soul Defenders pour Sir Coxsone Dodd au début des années 1970.
Leur premier album, Two Sevens Clash, dont le nom fait référence à l'année d'enregistrement 1977, est majoritairement composé de singles enregistrés dans le studio de Joe Gibbs et mixé par Errol Thompson et Joe Gibbs, le backing band est The Professionals. Ils enregistrent aussi chez Joe Gibbs l'album sorti l'année suivante Baldhead Bridge, dont les titres sont ce qui reste des sessions de Two Sevens Clash.
Ils enregistrent en 1978 au Harry J's Studio l'album Africa Stand Alone pour Jamie Hatcher et Sidney Crooks. Puis le groupe signe chez Virgin et rencontre Sonia Pottinger, célèbre productrice de reggae, qui leur permet l'obtention d'un passeport pour donner un concert aux États-Unis, qu'ils recontactent et pour laquelle ils enregistrent Harder Than The Rest, album majoritairement composé de reprise d' Africa Stand Alone, Cumbolo et International Herb, tous trois appuyé par les Révolutionnaires. Sonia Pottinger sort aussi l'album Culture In Dub, dubs de Harder Than The Rest et enregistre les titres qui sortiront en 1993 sur le label Heartbeat Records sous le nom Trod On et où l'on peut entendre sur deux titres Count Ossie & The Mystic Revelation Of Rastafari. En 1981, sort l'album More Culture composé de quatre titres enregistrés pour Joe Gibbs et du reste pour Sonia Pottinger.